Close this search box.

180+ Podcast Statistics & Trends [+ Infographics]

We are reader supported and may earn a commission when you buy through links on our site. Learn more.

As the podcast microphone prices went down, the number of podcast creators shot up. Luckily, these creators are backed by listeners who tune in for everything from news to gossip, entertainment to sports, and lifestyle to fashion.

This shows many stakeholders (creators, audience, device manufacturers, etc.) in the podcast industry. That is why we have curated the most recent podcast statistics to address the state of the industry, understand various players, and see where the market is headed.

Top 10 Podcast Statistics (Editor’s Pick)

  • 46% of podcast creators measured success in downloads.
  • 56% of US adult women had listened to at least one podcast by 2022.
  • American men listened to podcasts more than women from 2017-2022.
  • In 2021, 18.4% of UK pupils aged 11-14 listened to podcasts.
  • 26% of Japanese podcast listeners in 2021 claimed it helped them to relax.
  • 52% of US podcast ads in 2021 were direct response ads.
  • The global podcast market will be worth over $149 billion in 2030.
  • Music was the highest-growing podcast genre in the USA between 2019-2022.
  • 32% of podcasts in 2022 were between 30-40 minutes long.
  • 46% of podcasters in 2022 got most of their streams via Apple Music.


top podcast statistics
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/top-podcast-statistics.png" alt="Top 10 Podcast Statistics" width="768" border="0" height="1000.96" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

General Podcast Statistics

1. In 2021, 1 in 10 young British pupils admitted to listening to podcasts in the classroom.

Another 38% of the 1,600+ respondents to this study believed listening to podcasts in the classroom aided learning.

2. 69% of 1,300+ surveyed UK adults in winter 2021 listened to almost all their downloaded podcast episodes.

And there was another 67% that listened to the whole podcast episode.

3. 54% of US Latino adults in 2022 claimed interest in a topic endeared them to their first podcast.

15% claimed the podcast had a host they liked, and another 15% listened because it was hosted by a TV/movie star they liked. Music stars also held influence with 13% of first-time listeners. Only 3% reported being attracted by something else.

4. As of 2022, 44% of Latinos would listen to a podcast if Shakira hosted it.

Jennifer Lopez was famous among 40% of the surveyed audience, while Selena Gomez wrapped up the top three with 37%.

The table below shows the celebrities that could influence US Latinos to listen in on a podcast.

Celebrity Preferred By?
Shakira 44%
Jennifer Lopez 40%
Selena Gomez 37%
Bad Bunny 32%
Marc Anthony 31%
Karol G 24%
Mana 24%
Camila Cabello 23%
Romeo Santos 22%
Luis Miguel 21%

5. In the USA, podcasts accounted for 5% of time spent listening to all audio sources in 2021.

This combined time spent listening to internet radio, social media audio, audiobooks, and music streams. Likewise, the 2021 figures fell from 6% in 2020.

6. Podcast downloads increased by 20% in the US between 2021-2022.

Likewise, US listeners averaged 2.7 hours of weekly listening time in 2021, jumping to 3.8 weekly listening hours in 2022.

7. Only 2% of surveyed 2022 podcasters had over 10 million listeners.

Most (29%) had less than 5,000 listeners, followed by 19% with 10-50,000 listeners. In the joint third, with 16%, were podcasters with either 5-10,000 or 50-100,000 listeners.

8. Current events inspired 45% of 2022 podcasters for their next podcast topic.

35% created topics around ongoing research, while 32% loved to go with audience requests. Only 27% went with past events in news items.

9. In 2022, 35% of professional podcasters published new episodes once weekly.

20% posted twice weekly, and 19% uploaded new content every other week. 

In fourth place were 11% being daily podcasters, while 7% identifying as monthly posters rounded up the top five.

10. Most podcast hosts (at 29%) had most of their followers on Twitter as of 2022.

20% had their biggest fan bases on Facebook, while 16% reported the highest fan love on Instagram.

11. 55% of podcasters in 2022 agreed there were too many podcasts.

26% countered and said there were too few, and 19% said there were just enough.

12. Achieving consistent growth was the most challenging podcast-related task for 85% of podcasters in 2022.

83% claimed listener discoverability was their biggest concern, while 58% were more worried about how listeners found them.

Podcast Creators Statistics

13. 24% of US podcast creators in 2022 identified as Hispanics or Latinos.

In comparison, only 14% of the US population was Hispanic.

14. 45% of podcast creators in 2022 handled their promotion and marketing.

43% were also the show host, and 39% of creators booked the guests appearing on their podcasts.

In some cases (37%), podcast creators doubled as their audio engineers, as seen in the table below.

Podcaster Roles % of Podcasters in Role
Marketing and promotion 45%
Show hosting 43%
Guest booking 39%
Executive production 38%
Audio engineering 37%
Writing and Editing 33%
Miscellaneous administration 32%
Voice overs 26%
Graphics design 26%

15. 47% of surveyed podcasters in 2022 worked on only one podcast.

Over 3 in 10 (35%) worked on two podcasts simultaneously, while 18% were on three or more podcasts at a time.

In contrast, 30% of surveyed podcasters in 2021 were working on three or more podcasts.

16. 15% of part-time professional podcasters in 2022 were also part-time journalists.

Another 21% were part-time podcasters but full-time journalists

On the other end of the spectrum were 31% who worked on podcasts full time and another 33% of non-journalist part-time podcasters.

17. 28% of podcasters in 2022 were hired by a media outfit to start one.

This was from 591 surveyed professional podcasters. Conversely, 41% began their podcasts without any outside influence.

18. In 2022, 1 in 4 professional podcasters joined an existing podcast team.

Instead, 18% of surveyed podcasters started a new podcast that was a spinoff of a previous one.

19. 19% of 2022 podcast creators had their topics assigned by an editor.

Another 26% did not have control over the topic either since it was chosen by someone else on their team.

20. As of 2022, 5% of professional podcasters have yet to feature guests on their podcasts.

46% did so often, and 35% sometimes had guests on their podcasts. 

The rest (15%) would rarely have guests over.

Conversely, 69% of podcasters had guests over in 2021.

21. In 2022, 9% of podcast creators had an external agency book their guests.

However, most (59%) of these professional podcasters booked guests themselves. The second most (48%) had someone on their team do it for them.

22. In 2022, 38% of podcast creators offered exclusive/bonus episodes to paid subscribers.

Instead, 32% offered early access to new episodes. 20% provided some behind-the-scenes content, while 23% allowed AMA/Q&A sessions.

23. 46% of podcast creators measured success in downloads.

This 2022 survey also revealed 37% of creators that measured success by listeners/streamers, while 34% deferred to their podcast consumption rate.

Surprisingly, revenue (28%) was ranked seventh, even behind total subscribers (29%) and social media shares (29%).

24. The majority of surveyed podcasters in 2022, at 27%, did it for passion.

In close second were 27% motivated by the revenue, then 24% who wanted to spread awareness/education on a topic. Another 19% wanted to expand their brand’s audience.

podcasters reason for starting
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/podcasters-reason-starting.png" alt="Podcasters Reason for Starting" width="768" border="0" height="560.24316109422" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

25. 74% of podcasters in a 2022 survey preferred platforms with robust analytics and insights.

46% valued automatic transcripts the most on chosen platforms, and 41% were more interested in campaign/link tracking.

Podcast Audience Statistics

26. 58.7% of UK pupils listening to podcasts in 2021 preferred it for allowing them to multitask.

But 53.9% of these listeners subscribed to podcasts because they found the topic interesting.

27. 62.4% of young non-podcast listeners in the UK claimed they were uninterested.

Another 34% still needed to find a podcast they liked, and 11.2% were not interested in listening to others talk.

However, 5% did not listen because their device did not support podcasts.

28. 38% of Hispanics listened to a podcast hosted by other Latinos within a week of being surveyed in 2022.

Another 28% listened to Latino-hosted podcasts in the last month, while 13% did in the past six months leading to the survey. Only 11% had never listened to podcasts by Latino hosts.

29. In 2022, 38.4% of podcast listeners in the USA used Spotify.

Apple Podcasts (11.5%) was in second place, while iHeart Radio was third (6.2%).

Podcast Listening Medium Popularity
Spotify 38.4%
Apple Podcasts 11.5%
iHeartRadio 6.2%
Google Chrome 4.6%
Unspecified iOS App 15.1%
Other Apps 24.2%

30. US podcast downloaders in 2022 preferred Apple Podcasts to other platforms.

52.9% of podcast downloaders were in this category, leaving Spotify in second place with an 11.8% market share.

Podcast Downloading Medium Popularity
Apple Podcasts 52.9%
Spotify 11.8%
iHeartRadio 3.7%
Overcast 1.7%
Unspecified iOS app 13.8%
Other 16.1%

Podcast Reach & Usage Statistics

31. Podcasts reached 20% of UK adults aged 15+ weekly in 2021.

A winter 2021 survey puts podcasts in third place, lower than live radio’s reach to 89% of surveyed adults and below on-demand music’s 35% reach.

32. Most (64%) US Latino podcast listeners in 2022 listened from home.

This was the same as in 2021, dropping from the 71% share of Hispanic adults reporting the same in 2020.

33. 66% of Latino podcast listeners in 2022 recommended a product they heard about on podcasts to family and friends.

Another 69% claimed such sponsorships helped them learn more about a brand or product. In fact, 55% purchased a product/service from a podcast advertisement.

34. 79% of US residents aged 12+ knew what a podcast was.

This was data as of January 2022, better than the 78% who were familiar with podcasts in 2021.

35. About 62% of the US population had listened to a podcast at least once as of 2022.

That was roughly 177 million US persons aged 12+. Compared to 2021 (57%), 2022 saw a 5-percentage point growth.

36. The average US podcast listener downloaded 5.6 episodes weekly in 2022.

They were also most likely to listen to podcasts between 11 am to 1 pm (EST), enjoying the most hours on Wednesdays.

Podcast Statistics by Demography

37. 57% of surveyed professional podcasters in 2022 were male.

Roughly 41% were female, and the rest identified as nonbinary.

38. 69% of global professional podcasters identified as White/Caucasian.

Blacks (10%) followed in the 2022 survey, while there was a tie-in third (with 7% each) for Native Americans and Asian/Pacific Islanders.

39. There were around 28 million podcast listeners in Mexico in 2021.

The number was expected to grow until it peaked at 49 million in 2025 and reached 50 million in 2026.

Women and Podcasts Statistics

40. 56% of US adult women had listened to at least one podcast by 2022.

The figure showed a 19% growth from 2021, when only 37% of 18+ US women had listened to a podcast.

In contrast, 35% of the surveyed women listened to a podcast in July 2022, a month from the survey.

41. 30% of US women who consumed podcasts in 2022 had a $100k+ household income.

Another 61% boasted a college degree, and 11% had even sometimes/currently produced their podcast shows.

42. 4 in 10 American women listening to podcasts had been listening for under a year.

While the least (4%) had been listening to podcasts for over ten years.

Podcast Listening Duration % of Women Listeners
Less than a year 40%
1-3 years 31%
3-5 years 17%
5-10 years 8%
10+ years 4%

43. 63% of American women podcast listeners in 2022 sometimes recommended podcasts to others.

21% frequently recommended podcasts, while 16% never recommended podcasts to family and friends.

44. In 2022, 56% of 18+ women monthly podcast listeners followed a podcast’s social media channel.

51% followed more than one podcast on social media, while 40% went the extra mile to share it with their audience.

45. 9 in 10 women monthly podcast listeners in 2022 preferred female podcast hosts/producers.

55% would listen to podcasts more if they involved female perspectives. 

Yet another 52% would consume more podcasts if women creators started hosting more.

46. 40% of adult US women in 2022 wanted to listen to podcasts that discussed taboo/controversial topics.

55% said it was vital that they listened to podcasts featuring exclusive and uncensored conversations.

47. In 2022, 41% of American women considered brands promoted on a woman-hosted podcast.

This was compared to hearing about the same brand on other podcasts.

Another 36% of women were likelier to recommend a brand they heard about on a podcast hosted or produced by other women. 31% of these women would buy from such promoted brands, while 26% would spend more at such companies.

48. Almost half (48%) of female monthly podcast listeners in 2022 strongly preferred brands advertising on women-produced/hosted podcasts.

That was as 56% of the top 25 preferred podcast shows by women were hosted or co-hosted by women too.

49. 57% of multicultural US female podcast listeners wanted more podcasts focusing on women of color.

Still, they were behind the 67% of 18–24-year-old women who wanted the same as of 2022.

multicultural us female podcast listeners
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/multicultural-us-female-podcast-listeners.png" alt="Multicultural US Female Podcast Listeners" width="768" border="0" height="855.04" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

50. 47% of multicultural 18+ US women podcast listeners had difficulty finding a podcast on women of color.

And in the same 2022 survey, 55% of women podcast listeners aged 18-24 had the same concern.

51. 6 in 10 women monthly podcast listeners in 2022 followed hosts on social media to get updates/reminders on new shows.

Another 29% did it to feel engaged with the host, while 58% claimed they supported the show by following.

Reason for Following How Many Women?
Show updates and reminders 60%
Support the show 58%
Receive non-podcast content types 45%
Connect and engage with the podcast community 37%
React, talk, and listen to other listeners 32%
Interact with podcast host/creator 31%
Connect and engage with the host 29%

52. 76% of women podcast listeners in 2022 who liked to recommend podcasts to others shared a podcast that made them laugh.

Conversely, 34% shared a podcast that made them cryThe majority (85%) shared the podcast because they felt the other person would enjoy the topic.

53. In 2021, Japanese women were likeliest to play a podcast during housework.

This was prevalent among 22.8% of the surveyed women.

Furthermore, 10.8% of them played a podcast in their leisure time, while 9% did so while walking.

54. 74% of women podcast listeners consumed podcast episodes without videos in 2022.

40% preferred to listen with headphones, and 61% listened in a car or truck.

Men and Podcasts Statistics

55. 56.9% of Japanese podcast listeners in 2021 were men.

Most of this group (15.2%) were men in their 20s, followed by men in their 40s (13.3%), then men in their 30s (11.8%).

56. Just under half (49.3%) of non-podcast listeners in Japan were men.

Thus, making women (50.7%) the highest non-podcast-listening gender in Japan as of 2021.

57. In 2021, most male Japanese podcast listeners fired up an episode in their free time.

This was true for 16.3% of the male listeners, followed by 15.2% who played a podcast episode while driving. Third was 12.8% of the surveyed group listening to podcasts right before bedtime.

58. 22.4% of Japanese male podcast listeners used podcasts to get the latest information.

Instead, most female Japanese podcast listeners in 2021 (17.9%) turned to it for entertainment.

59. American men listened to podcasts more than women from 2017-2022.

52% of men listened to podcasts in 2022, compared to 48% of women. 

However, the men’s share dropped from 2021 figures (56%).

60. More US Latino males listened to podcasts than women between 2020 – 2022.

In 2022, 53% of adult Latino podcast audiences were male, while 47% were female. The share of males (58%) was higher in 2021 and 2020 (55%).

61. 53.2% of 11–18-year-old UK boys who listened to podcasts enjoyed what they listened to.

Girls (37.8%) were less likely to tune in to a podcast session because it aligned with their interests, according to this 2021 survey.

62. 6 in 10 UK males aged 15+ had access to a podcast in winter of 2021.

This was only valid for 40% of females in the same reporting period

However, Listen Again/Catch-Up radio was more popular among the ladies (55% vs. 45% for males).

Africa Podcast Audience Statistics

63. Spotify was the most used podcast-listening app (35.1%) in selected African countries in 2022.

Apple Podcasts came second with an 18.1% share, while Google Podcasts (15.3%) made the top three podcasting apps across Nigeria, Kenya, and South Africa.

64. On average, most Africans (29%) listened to podcasts between 6 am – 10 am daily.

The 2022 research shows this was true for 30.5% of Kenyans, 30.1% of Nigerians, and 21.4% of South Africans.

However, most South Africans (33.9%) listened to podcasts between 4 and 8 pm.

65. Over 30% of Africans in 2022 listened to two podcasts regularly.

Just below 30% juggled 3+ podcasts regularly, while over 2 in 10 listened to three. Those listening to just one podcast (under 20%) were the least of the bunch.

african podcast listeners statistics
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/african-podcast-listeners-statistics.png" alt="African Podcast Listeners Statistics" width="768" border="0" height="840.32" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

66. Nigeria was the only surveyed African country in 2022 where podcast listeners did nothing else while listening.

And this was common among over 15% of surveyed listeners from the country.

In contrast, over 20% of Kenyans and just under 20% of South Africans listened to podcasts while commuting, compared to almost no Nigerian in this use case.

67. Roughly 30% of Kenyans were doing housework while listening to podcasts in 2022.

That compared to over 25% of South Africans and around 35% of Nigerians who paired podcast listening with the same activity.

68. In 2022, over 3 in 10 Africans favored podcasts on culture, media, and arts.

12.4% were interested in Health and Wellness topics, while 7.8% sought current affairs and news. Rounding up the top five were Science and Technology (6.5%) and Business (6.5%) podcast audiences.

69. Nigerians were the likeliest (of surveyed Africans in 2022) to access podcasts over mobile data.

Over 3 in 4 Nigerian podcast listeners were in this category, compared to about 25% of Kenyans and roughly 2 in 10 South Africans.

Conversely, about 75% or more of Kenyans and South Africans preferred Wi-Fi to access podcasts, contrasting with about 1 in 10 Nigerians.

70. South African podcast listeners in 2022 were the likeliest to listen to international podcasts.

Almost 8 in 10 South Africans consumed international podcast content more than podcasts from their country or other African countries.

Nigerians (roughly 50%) were the likeliest to enjoy podcasts from their country. 

Even so, about 1 in 10 South Africans (the most in this category) were likelier to listen to podcasts from other African countries.

Japanese Podcast Audience Statistics

71. Only about 14.4% of Japanese internet users in 2021 were also podcast listeners.

36.8% of this group were unmarried, while most (55.2%) were married. 

The rest (8%) were either separated from their partners or bereaved.

72. 20.3% of Japanese podcast audiences listened to an episode almost daily in 2021.

But most of the surveyed audience (30.3%) listened to podcasts only up to twice per week.

Listening Frequency % of Japanese Podcast Listeners
Daily 20.3%
3-4 times weekly 17%
1-2 times weekly 30.3%
Multiple times monthly 23.8%
Once per month 8.7%

73. 3.9% of Japanese podcast listeners in 2021 followed 9+ programs.

3-4 programs were the sweet spot for most (40.5%) of the surveyed audience, with 24.6% (second-most users) sticking with one program.

74. In 2021, 37.2% of Japanese podcast listeners first listened after seeing podcast reviews on social media.

28.9% started listening when they got the option on their music streaming apps like Apple Music and Spotify. Another 19.9% had their first podcast recommended to them by friends and family.

75. The majority of Japanese 20–60-year-old podcast listeners found new podcasts by searching the podcast app.

The share of these age groups who discovered new podcasts this way in 2021, more than any other discovery method, is tabled below.

Age Bracket % Discovering New Podcasts via Search
20s 12.8%
30s 8.7%
40s 10.8%
50s 6.6%
60s 7.6%

US Podcast Audience Statistics

76. 41% of US persons aged 12+ listened to podcasts monthly, on average, in 2021.

Monthly podcast listeners in this age group have steadily increased since 2013, with a notable jump from 37% in 2020 to the 2021 figures.

77. Most US weekly podcast listeners in 2021 did so at home rather than in their cars.

As of Q4 2021, 59% of weekly podcast listeners aged 12+ listened to a podcast at home, compared to 20% who played episodes while driving.

Quarter At Home In Car
Q1 2021 64% 14%
Q2 2021 63% 15%
Q3 2021 63% 17%
Q4 2021 59% 20%

78. In 2021, smartphones were preferred over desktops/laptops by US podcast listeners.

Q4 2021 registered 73% of weekly podcast listeners choosing to play episodes on their smartphones. Conversely, only 13% played a podcast on their desktop or laptop devices.

A breakdown of podcast-playing device preferences across the four quarters of 2021 is tabled below.

Quarter Smartphones Desktops/Laptops
Q1 2021 64% 20%
Q2 2021 67% 18%
Q3 2021 67% 19%
Q4 2021 73% 13%

79. 38% of US podcast listeners in 2022 were monthly listeners.

This fell from 41% in 2021, slightly above 37% of this demography who were monthly listeners in 2020.

80. Monthly podcast listening frequency declined across US men and women in 2021-2022.

43% of US men were monthly podcast listeners in 2021, falling to 41% in 2022. Likewise, women listeners lost three percentage points from 2021 (39%) to 2022 (36%).

81. More US adults (43%) aged 35-54 listened to podcasts monthly in 2022 than in 2021.

The number was at 39% in 2021. However, this was the only percentage group with an increase, seeing as the 12–34-year-old (56% vs. 50%) and over 55-year-old adults (26% vs. 22%) slumped in their monthly listening habits.

82. White Americans made up 59% of monthly US podcast listeners in 2022.

Hispanics followed (17%), and African-Americans (14%) rounded up the top three. 

Asians comprised only 3% of listeners, while other ethnicities accounted for 6%.

83. 21% of US podcast listeners aged 12+ averaged 4-5 podcasts weekly.

The 2022 data also uncovered 16% of listeners averaged 6-10 weekly podcasts, while 13% listened to three.

Weekly Podcast Consumption Share of Podcast Listeners Aged 12+
One 14%
Two 18%
Three 13%
4-5 21%
6-10 16%
11 and above 18%

84. 77% of US podcast listeners aged 55+ listened to 1-5 podcasts weekly in 2022.

This group beat the 12–34-year-olds (67%) and 35–54-year-olds (62%) to the top spotHowever, only 5% listened to 11 or more podcasts weekly

That was bested by 25% of the 35–54-year-olds and 15% of 12–34-year-olds in the same shoes.

85. 2% of US podcast listeners in 2022 used a smart speaker to play podcast episodes.

But mobile devices (94%) continued to rule the roost, while desktop/laptops and other listening options tied with 2%.

86. In 2022, 43% of women monthly podcast listeners in the US were aged 18-34.

In comparison, 29% of all US women were in this age range in the year.

87. 51% of American daily podcast listeners started listening between 2020-2022.

But 49% had listened to podcasts before those years.

88. 38% of the US population listened to at least one podcast between May-June 2022.

That was better than 34% of US Latinos who had also listened to a podcast in that one-month range.

Hispanic Podcast Audience Statistics

89. 59% of surveyed US Latinos in 2022 had listened to a podcast before.

This was mild growth from 56% in 2021 and a decent jump from 45% of this group reporting the same in 2020.

90. By 2022, 51% of US Latinos had listened to a podcast broadcasted in English.

Another third (33%) had heard a podcast published mainly in Spanish.

91. US-born Latinos were likelier to have listened to a podcast recently than non-US-born Latinos.

In 2022, 37% of Latinos born in the US admitted listening to a podcast between May-June. That was higher than 29% of non-US-born Latino podcast listeners in the same period.

92. In June 2022, almost 3 in 10 US Latinos listened to a podcast weekly.

34% of this group also registered as monthly podcast listeners.

93. 18–34-year-old US Latinos were the most frequent podcast listeners between 2020 – 2022.

This group accounted for half of the adult Latino podcast audience in 2020, dropping to 48% and 47% in 2021 and 2022, respectively.

94. 35–54-year-old US Latinos listened to podcasts more than older folks between 2020 – 2022.

In 2022, 42% of 35–54-year-old Latinos listened to podcasts, compared with 11% of the 55+ audience.

The table below breaks down podcast listenership between these age groups as a share of the total Latino audience.

Age/Year 2020 2021 2022
35-54 39% 44% 42%
55+ 11% 8% 11%

95. The majority (40%) of US Latino podcast listeners in 2022 were Catholic.

31% identified with other Christian denominations, and 7% went with other religions. A 22% share claimed to be agnostic, atheist, or have no affiliations.

96. Almost 2 in 10 US Latino podcast listeners in 2022 were part of the LGBTQ+ community.

For context, 7% of all American adults identified as part of the community in 2021, of which 11% of Latino adults were in the mix.

97. In 2021 and 2022, 13% of US Hispanics listened to podcasts in their car.

But in 2020, only 11% of these US Latino podcast listeners played a podcast episode in their cars.

98. 12% of surveyed US Latino podcast listeners would play a podcast at work in 2022.

Slightly fewer (10%) tried that in 2021, and even lesser (8%) did the same in 2020.

99. In 2021, 42% of Hispanic video podcast listeners chose video to pay better attention.

Another 43% listened to podcasts with videos since they got their podcast content on YouTube. In line with that, 36% agreed that YouTube made it easier (than other platforms) to access podcast content.

100. 36% of Hispanics in 2021 listening to podcasts with videos did so for company.

This group found it easier to enjoy the podcast with others that way. 

Conversely, 35% liked to read comments from other listeners.

101. 26% of Hispanics listening to video-based podcasts did so for the lack of another listening option.

Another 26% only had a podcast service supporting video content

Finally, the 2021 data showed 19% of respondents in this category wanted to maximize their paid YouTube accounts.

hispanic podcast listeners statistics
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/hispanic-podcast-listeners.png" alt="Hispanic Podcast Listeners Statistics" width="768" border="0" height="574.92202121023" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

UK Podcast Audience Statistics

102. 23.2% of surveyed UK boys aged 11-18 listened to podcasts as of 2021.

That was more than the girls (21.4%) in the same age range who also listened to podcasts.

103. In 2021, 18.4% of UK pupils aged 11-14 listened to podcasts.

Podcast listening increased with age across these pupils, with those aged 14-16 (29.9%) and 16-18 (44.4%) listening more.

104. 1 in 4 16–18-year-old British podcast listeners did so to fill time.

This behavior was more prevalent among 11–14-year-olds (28.6%), but only 24.4% of 14–16-year-olds claimed the same in 2021.

105. 22.3% of UK kids surveyed in 2021 listened to podcasts in their free time.

In fact, over half (50.3%) of these 358 listeners had a favorite podcast.

106. In 2021, 50.4% of 13–18-year-old UK podcast listeners consumed less podcast content once schools reopened.

In contrast, 55.1% frequently listened to podcasts when schools were closed during the pandemic.

107. Older UK pupils were likelier to listen to podcasts that they found interesting than the younger ones.

2021 data shows that 69.8% of pupils aged 14-16 who were also podcast listeners did so because they found the topic interesting. Another 65.4% of listeners aged 16-18 tuned in to their favorite channels for the same reason.

108. 14–16-year-old British students were the likeliest (in 2021) to listen to a podcast made by a famous person they like.

45.3% of this age group were in this bracket among a surveyed group of students aged 11-18. In second place were 11–14-year-olds (42.3%), while 16–18-year-old listeners (30.8%) were least likely to be motivated by fame.

109. In winter 2021, 25–34-year-old adults accounted for the highest podcast reach in the UK.

Taking a 30% share, this demography beat the 15–24-year-olds (21%), surged past the 35–54-year-olds (24%), and scored better than the 55+-year-olds (11%).

110. As of 2021, UK adults consumed about 68 million hours of podcast content weekly.

This grew from the 45 million weekly hours recorded in 2018.

Year Weekly Podcast Listening Hours
2016 26 million
2017 36 million
2018 45 million
2019 58 million
2021 68 million

111. 94% of the UK adult podcast-listening population listened to their audio episodes alone.

Of these, 25% were driving/traveling while playing podcasts, and the majority (30%) were working or studying.

Below is a breakdown of what these British adults were doing while listening to podcasts.

Activity % Share
Working/studying 30%
Driving/traveling 25%
Relaxing 16%
Household chores 10%
Sports/exercise 10%
Other 5%
Eating/drinking 4%

112. Over 3 in 4 UK adult podcast listeners in 2021 listened on mobile phones.

8% listened on their laptop, another 8% listened on their tablet, and 6% used an iPod. Only 2% used smart home speakers.

113. 50% of surveyed British podcast listeners in 2021 enjoyed episodes at home.

Likewise, 59% of podcast listeners used headphones, joint-top with 59% of audiobook listeners.

114. Podcasts accounted for 10% of all news consumption in the UK between 2021-2022.

Even though it was behind juggernauts like television (74%), radio (40%), and newspapers (24%), 2021-2022 was the first-time that podcast broke into this list in the UK.

115. Scots (15%) were the likeliest UK residents to get news from podcasts.

This 2022 data shows England in second (at 10%), followed by Northern Ireland (9%) and Wales (7%).

Podcast Language Statistics

116. 90% of US Latino podcast listeners in 2022 opted for an English language-dominant podcast.

This was more than 84% in this position in 2020 and slightly higher than 89% in 2021.

117. In 2022, 64% of Hispanics listened to a podcast that aired in Spanish.

This dropped from 67% of Hispanics who did the same in 2021 but better than the 63% who reported the same in 2020.

118. Hispanic podcast listeners preferred podcasts that would help improve their English Language.

73% of Hispanics felt this way in 2022, with 51% being “very interested” in the prospect. Conversely, 76% were interested in a podcast where they learned better Spanish, but only 46% were “very interested,” leaving the other 30% “somewhat interested.”

119. 36% of Hispanics in 2022 were very interested in a podcast to help them learn languages besides English and Spanish.

Another 31% were somewhat interested in the idea, but 21% did not entertain the concept. The rest (12%) were somewhat uninterested.

120. 34% of surveyed Hispanic podcast listeners claimed all advertisements on Spanish podcasts were in Spanish.

Likewise, in the 2022 survey, 40% claimed that most (not all) of these podcasts had their advertisements in the Spanish language. In contrast, 1 in 4 Hispanics believed this was only true for some of these podcasts, and a smaller 1% thought Spanish-language podcasts did not have Spanish ads.

121. Over 2 in 10 Hispanics in 2022 wanted to hear all ads on Spanish podcasts in Spanish.

53% of Hispanic Spanish-language podcast listeners preferred ads in English and Spanish, while 9% showed no preference for either language.

Conversely, 17% wanted these ads in English only, even though the podcasts were predominantly Spanish.

Podcast Benefits Statistics

122. 54.2% of young podcast listeners in the UK liked hearing other people’s opinions.

Another 74.6% of the 2021 survey respondents claimed they better understood a subject by listening to a podcast.

123. Roughly 3 in 10 surveyed UK pupils who listened to podcasts claimed it helped them understand what they were taught in school.

In fact, 67.3% of 16–18-year-olds in the 2021 surveyed group admitted to learning something new from their podcast-listening sessions. That compared to 43.2% of younger pupils (11-14) who took the same stance.

124. Younger British girls were likelier to shake off a bad mood after listening to a podcast than boys.

Overall, podcasts helped 51.1% of a 1600+ respondent group feel better in 2021. However, more girl pupils in the study (57.2%) agreed with this than the boys (42.9%).

125. 63.7% of surveyed UK pupils in 2021 felt more confident about a topic after listening to a podcast about it.

So much so that 66.2% of the podcast-listening population sought a further discussion on such topics with family and friends.

126. In 2021, podcasts piqued an extra learning interest in 44.7% of pupils who were listeners.

Another 34.1% of the podcast listening group felt motivated to write more after listening to podcasts.

127. 51.4% of young podcast listeners in the UK said it made them laugh.

And in the same 2021, 41.9% of surveyed listeners aged 11-18 claimed it helped them relax.

128. 26% of Japanese podcast listeners in 2021 claimed it helped them relax.

This consisted of more females (13.9%) than males (12.1%) sharing that thought.

japanese podcast listeners statistics
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/japanese-podcast-listeners.png" alt="Japanese Podcast Listeners Statistics" width="768" border="0" height="985.6" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

Podcast Market Statistics

129. Podcast advertising revenues hit the $1 billion mark for the first time in 2021.

Closing at $1.4 billion, the market saw a 72% increase from 2020, and it was projected to hit $2 billion for the first time in 2022.

130. Podcast advertising revenue grew faster than the combined internet advertising revenue between 2020-2021.

While podcast ad revenue surged 72% year-on-year, internet ad revenues managed less than half of that (35%).

131. Dynamic ad insertion accounted for 84% of podcast ad revenues in 2021.

Podcast ads read by announcers also accounted for 40% of all served ads, adding five percentage points from 35% in 2020.

132. US podcasts brought in $173 million in revenues in Q1 2021.

This grew to $225 million in Q2, jumped again to $242 million by Q3, and the last quarter of the year recorded $326 million.

133. 64% of US podcast ad revenues in 2021 came from mid-roll ad insertions.

32% of the revenue was generated by pre-roll ads, while a 4% share was generated by advertisements at the end of the podcast.

134. Host-read ads comprised 55% of podcast ad revenues in the US.

This 2021 data also shows that announcer-read ads accounted for 40% of the ad revenue, while 3% came from brand/client-supplied ad formats. 

Other ad delivery formats accounted for the remaining 2%.

Podcast Ad, Financials & Revenue Statistics

135. 55% of sold podcast ad slots in 2021 were between 16-30 seconds long.

Next in line was 27% of ad slots featuring 31-60 seconds long ads, and another 16% just up to 15 seconds.

Podcast Ad Time Slots Prevalence
1-15 seconds 16%
16-30 seconds 55%
31-60 seconds 27%
61-90 seconds 2%
Over 90 seconds 1%

136. Only 1% of US podcast creators in 2021 sold ad spaces for a flat fee.

Most (94%) sold ad spaces per thousand listeners on the platform, while 5% used a series ownership planning model.

137. 52% of US podcast ads in 2021 were direct response ads.

46% were geared towards brand awareness, while 3% were branded content ads.

138. Weekly or biweekly podcast creators earned 70% of ad revenues in 2021.

Daily creators accounted for a 23% share to clinch second place, far ahead of seasonal and limited-run series type podcasts with a joint 3% share. 

Monthly posters only realized 1% of the 2021 ad revenues.

139. Programmatic ads were only 1.7% of podcast ads in 2021.

However, they fared better (2.2%) in 2020 across the total podcast ad share. 

Conversely, geo-targeting ads increased to 25.8%, up from 23.2% of those sold in 2020.

140. 34% of podcasters did not offer their audiences any paid content in 2021.

Fast forward to 2022, and 69% already offered paid content to listeners.

141. 27% of professional podcasters did not monetize their podcast content in 2022.

In contrast, 38% monetized with paid subscriptions, while 34% chose ad monetization. Another 26% went with paid guests, and 29% preferred sharing premium content.

142. 23% of podcasters in 2022 declared a $50,000-$74,999 income from podcasting.

In second place were 22% earning more, at $75,000-$99,000 yearly. 

The third highest group was the lowest earner in the top three, raking between $30,000-$$49,999 annually.

143. Podcast advertisers using 11+ podcast networks had the best (1.45%) conversion in Q1 2022.

Podcast ad publishers running ads on one platform (1.09%) got the poorest conversion rates, with those on 2-10 publishers (1.29%) sticking in the middle.

144. Mid-roll podcast ads netted advertisers an 0.87% conversion rate in Q1 2022.

Pre-roll podcast ads followed, at 0.73%, while post-roll ads only guaranteed about 0.48% conversions.

145. The travel industry enjoyed the highest (0.07%) podcast ad conversion rates in Q1 2022.

This was in terms of purchases made due to the podcast ads. Conversely, pharma suffered the least purchase conversion rate of 0.02%, lower than the industry average of 0.04%.

146. The global podcast market will be worth over $149 billion in 2030.

The market was worth roughly $13.7 billion in 2021 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 31.5% to reach the forecasted number.

147. The US podcast market was projected to hit $2 billion in 2023.

As of 2022, the market had over 2 million podcast titles contributing to this revenue growth.

148. 18.1% of surveyed podcasters in 2022 generated revenue via donations.

The majority (36.8%) generated income via sponsorships, while 13.5% used programmatic ads instead. Still, there was a 23.2% group uninterested in monetizing their podcast.

149. Liberty Media bought Stitcher, a podcast company, for $325 million in 2020.

Spotify also paid $500 million to buy four podcasting brands (Gimlet, Anchor, Parcast, and Ringer) between 2019-2020.

150. 7% of Japanese podcast listeners frequently purchased something after listening to a podcast.

As of 2021, another 22.9% occasionally purchased something after a podcast-listening session. However, 35.7% had never purchased after listening to a podcast.

Podcast Genre Statistics

151. Most Hispanics in 2022 (39%) listened to music podcasts over other genres.

This tied with the percentage who preferred comedy podcasts, while society and culture-related podcasts came next among 33% of listeners.

Interestingly, comedy (38%) and music (33%) were the top two podcast genres among US Latinos in 2021.

top podcast genres among us hispanics and latinos
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/podcast-genres-statistics.png" alt="Podcast Genres Among Hispanics and US Latinos" width="768" border="0" height="732.59141494436" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

152. 27% of US Latinos listened to Sports, Health and Fitness, Technology, or Politics podcasts.

However, these were the bottom four genres across this demographic from select genres in 2022.

Below is a breakdown of how their listening to these genres evolved from 2020-2022.

Genre/Year 2020 2021 2022
Sports 24% 22% 27%
Health and Fitness 23% 22% 27%
Technology 21% 21% 27%
Politics 19% 21% 27%

153. 27% of Hispanics in 2022 had listened to History-related podcasts at one time in the past.

1 in 4 (25%) had listened to natural news podcasts, tying with the percentage that had previously consumed personal development podcasts. 

In third place (23%) was science podcasts, ranking higher than the 22% who had listened to game podcasts before.

154. 23% (majority) of US podcast listeners in 2022 preferred news content to other genres.

17% downloaded and listened to comedy podcasts, while True Crime (15%) came third.

A proper breakdown of podcast genre preferences can be found below.

Genre Popularity
News 23%
Comedy 17%
True Crime 15%
Sports 10%
Society and culture 10%
Other 7%
Business 4%
History 3%
Health and Fitness 2%
Science 2%
TV and film 2%
Arts 2%
Religion and spirituality 2%

155. Most women podcast listeners listened to Comedy, True Crime, and Love & Relationship content.

40% of surveyed US women podcast listeners in 2022 listened to Comedy podcasts, 37% went with True Crime, while 32% chose Love & Relationship podcasts.

The least number of women (6%) chose Language podcasts, Children’s podcasts (8%), and Biography/Memoirs (9%).

156. In 2022, 69% of 18+ US women podcast listeners listened to podcasts while doing household chores.

59% did so while cooking and baking, and 57% played an episode while doing laundry.

Conversely, a minority of women (24%) fired up podcasts while shopping.

157. Professional services (3.08%) saw the highest podcast ad conversion rates in Q1 2022.

It was followed by the Gambling (2.2%) and Automotive industry (1.96%) to round up the top three.

158. Parenting (0.48%) brands experienced the lowest podcast ad conversion rate in Q1 2022.

It was only bettered by pharma (0.57%) and beauty (0.77%) brands in the bottom three.

159. Music was the highest-growing podcast genre in the USA between 2019-2022.

Data gathered between November 2019 and May 2022 showed a 109% growth in music podcast listeners. It was followed by a 96% increase in leisure podcast listeners, while True Crime saw a 66% boom.

160. In 2021, “News” was the most common podcast genre across all ages in Japan.

11.5% of Japanese podcast listeners in their 40s sought out news content, followed by 10.3% of listeners in their 50s. Even though listeners in their 20s (9.4%) dominated most other genres, news was still their top genre.

161. 38% of UK adults who got their news via podcasts in 2022 used Spotify.

This was a surge from 23% of UK adults using Spotify for podcast news in 2022

In contrast, Apple Podcasts dropped 2% (20% to 18%) in the same timeframe.

Podcast Duration Statistics

162. 32% of podcasts in 2022 were between 30-40 minutes long.

That put them in the majority, ahead of 29% that lasted 20-30 minutes and 17% in the 40-50-minute range.

Podcast Duration Prevalence
<20 minutes 8%
20-30 minutes 29%
30-40 minutes 32%
40-50 minutes 17%
50 minutes – 1 hour 10%
>1 hour 4%

163. 56% of US daily podcast listeners in 2022 consumed more podcast content than before.

41% claimed their listening frequency had not changed, while 3% listened less than before.

164. In 2022, almost half of African podcast listeners preferred 30-40-minute-long podcasts.

Of these, just under 25% wanted podcasts to be 30 minutes long, while over 20% selected 40-minute-long options. Very few wanted 80-minute-long podcasts, even though 5% of the surveyed group would endure 90-minute-long episodes.

Podcast Delivery Channel Statistics

165. 60% of podcasters in 2022 also created social media content.

46% had a website, and 40% were running a blog.

The breakdown of other channels podcasters used for content creation is found below.

Platform Popularity Among Podcasters
Social media 60%
Website 46%
Blog 40%
Newsletter 34%
Online news 23%
Forums 19%
TV 18%
Print 16%
Radio 16%

166. 46% of podcasters in 2022 got most of their streams via Apple Music.

This made it the most significant platform by obtained streams among podcasters in 2022. It dwarfed Google Podcasts (17%) in second place and Spotify in third, with 11%.

167. Buzzsprout, SoundCloud, and Libsyn were the joint-top podcast publishing platforms in 2022.

These three had a 20% share (each) of podcasters using them in the year. 

Simplecast came close (19%), while Anchor made the top three with 17%.

168. 51% of podcasters will also cross-post episodes on Facebook.

As of 2022, when podcasters posted the same content across 2+ channels, 48% also posted on Instagram, while 46% cross-posted on their blogs.

Here was how the surveyed podcasters voted on platforms they cross-posted to.

Platform Cross-Posters
Facebook 51%
Instagram 48%
Personal blog 46%
Twitter 44%
Email/newsletter 32%
YouTube 32%
LinkedIn 30%
TikTok 22%
SoundCloud 16%
Twitch 11%
Other 3%

169. In 2022, 7 in 10 podcasters promoted their podcast on social media.

54% did so on blogs/websites, while 34% chose email marketing to push their podcasts. Interestingly, 23% resorted to paid ads.

Other Podcast Statistics

170. 78% of US Hispanic podcast listeners in 2022 preferred audio-only podcasts.

This slightly dropped from 79% who chose the same podcast delivery method in 2021.

171. Smart speaker-based podcast listening declined in the US between 2020 – 2022.

3.6% of all podcast listening was done on smart speakers in 2020, declining to 2.7% in 2021. By 2022, the figure was 1.8%, the same as in 2019.

172. 67% of podcasters in 2022 would also record videos of their podcast sessions.

33% would not.

173. 51% of podcasters rejected a guest appearance pitch for lack of personalization.

Even though 3% more podcasters got such pitches in 2022 (vs. 2021), lack of personalization was the main reason for rejection, even ahead of lousy timing (30%).

174. Almost half (49%) of podcasters never want to be pitched for guest appearances over the phone.

The 2022 survey also showed that 45% disliked being pitched via mass email, and 48% disliked being pitched on social media.

Of the social media bunch, the majority (29%) were particular about not getting pitched on Twitter. Conversely, another 40% of podcasters were open to being pitched via Twitter.

175. In 2022, 19% of podcasters rejected pitches because they were too lengthy.

When asked, 41% wanted pitchers to keep it between 100-200 words

33% could tolerate up to 300 words, but only 12% cared for 300-1000+ words.

176. Professional podcasters in 2022 wanted PR professionals to research their brands before sending pitches.

Here is a breakdown of what podcasters expected PR professionals to do before pitching them.

Expected Research Podcasters That Voted
Website & content review 45%
Social media review 44%
Listening to multiple podcast episodes 43%
Listening to a single podcast episode 27%
Other 3%
None 13%

177. Most podcasters in 2022 had been podcasting for 3-5 years.

23% had been at it for 1-2 years, and the third-largest group (21%) was going on 6-10 years in the game. Only 11% had spent under one year, while 7% were on 10-20 years.

178. 52% of Hispanics used promotional codes mentioned in podcasts they listened to in 2022.

Considering that, 40% of Hispanic podcast listeners claimed most Spanish-language podcasts included some form of advertisement

36% even said all the Spanish-based podcasts they had listened to featured advertisements, and only 4% were sure none had.

179. 61% of surveyed podcast creators in 2022 preferred organic to paid guests.

While 39% willingly sought after paid guests more than their organic counterparts.

180. South Africans streamed more podcast episodes than they downloaded in 2022.

While over 75% streamed podcast episodes, under 25% downloaded theirs.

In contrast, just below 75% of Kenyans (and slightly over 50% of Nigerians) also streamed their podcast content.

south africans podcast streaming vs downloading
Share This Image On Your Website
					<a href="https://vpnalert.com/resources/podcast-statistics/" target="_blank" data-wpel-link="internal"><img src="https://vpnalert.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/south-africans-podcast-streaming-downloading.png" alt="South Africans Podcast Streaming vs Downloading" width="768" border="0" height="776.32" loading="lazy" fetchpriority="low"></a>

181. 34.9% of Japanese podcast listeners used Spotify to access their preferred podcasts.

Thus, making the platform the most preferred among podcast listeners in 2021.

In addition, Apple Podcast (29.7%) and Amazon Music (24%) rounded up the top three.

What Does the Future Hold?

The future of podcasting has already started. With the multi-million-dollar acquisitions of podcast companies and the leaning of digital audio platforms towards podcasting, more people are simply going to take up the mic too.

Whether you are an entrepreneur looking to build your brand, a creator with ideas to share with the world, or an advertiser interested in reaching a bigger audience, these statistics expose you to the podcast angles you’re looking for.

And for podcast creators who need to learn how to monetize their budding audience, read our Patreon Statistics for insights on what you might earn there.

Interesting Reads:
  1. https://literacytrust.org.uk/research-services/research-reports/young-peoples-engagement-with-podcasts-in-2021/
  2. https://www.rajar.co.uk/content.php?page=news
  3. https://www.edisonresearch.com/the-latino-podcast-listener-report-2022/
  4. https://www.edisonresearch.com/the-infinite-dial-2022/
  5. https://www.iab.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/IAB-FY-2021-Podcast-Ad-Revenue-and-2022-2024-Growth-Projections_FINAL.pdf
  6. https://tritonrankers.com/2022%20U.S.%20Podcast%20Report.pdf
  7. https://muckrack.com/blog/2022/10/27/state-of-podcasting-2022
  8. https://www.edisonresearch.com/the-womens-podcast-report-from-edison-research-and-sxm-media/
  9. https://f.hubspotusercontent20.net/hubfs/20786575/Podsights-Benchmark-Report-Q4-2021.pdf?utm_campaign=Benchmark%20Report&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=200908681&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_zpASRW7oEeSv_qVaHBQSDqemsADN6rfhd6ck7B6YdjUNWNHjOV9WaIpvyK7g3_ZTtfCZa5SVexpQVBG0B6OQPYi6hkNUZlAQ2_gfb-1e4aHqScgk&utm_content=200908681&utm_source=hs_automation
  10. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1192098/podcast-consumers-number-mexico/#:~:text=The%20source%20estimated%20that%2C%20in,platforms%20in%20Mexico%20in%202021.
  11. https://www.polarismarketresearch.com/industry-analysis/podcasting-market
  12. https://www.westwoodone.com/blog/2022/07/11/nielsen-audio-today-key-takeaways-am-fm-radio-is-at-the-center-of-the-audio-universe-with-massive-reach-delivering-consumers-that-spend-on-the-path-to-purchase-and-offering-advertisers-a-way-to-targ/
  13. https://www.cohostpodcasting.com/free-downloadables/podcaster-insights-survey-2022
  14. https://africapodcastfestival.com/research
  15. https://getdigitalradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Radio-and-Audio-Review-International-Market-Report-September-2021.pdf
  16. https://otonal.co.jp/en/report/podcast-report-in-japan2021.html
  17. https://www.ofcom.org.uk/research-and-data/tv-radio-and-on-demand/news-media/news-consumption
help us to Spread the word
Share This Article!

Please help us spread the word by sharing this article and telling your family, friends, and colleagues.

Explore More